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Ceratopsidae Family | Ancient Beasts

"The Ceratopsidae family contains many dinosaurs, you may recognize, such as Triceratops. Read all the details of this exciting dino group."

You may recognize the Ceratopsidae family by one of its most popular dinosaurs, the Triceratops. Also called Ceratopsians, there are about 60 species that we know of or have discovered. It’s believed that most of these ancient beasts lived during the Late Cretaceous period.

In this article, we’ll showcase the top qualities of the Ceratopsidae family, what their behavior was, which genera fell beneath it, and so much more. You’ll also see our list of the top Ceratopsians, ending off with a few questions people always ask.

Ceratopsidae Family

What is the Ceratopsidae Family?

The Ceratopsian dinosaurs were quadrupedal herbivores from the Ornithischia order during the Late Cretaceous. Most of the fossils found were discovered in North America. There are two main sub-families, which we’ll discuss more a bit later. Top names in the Ceratopsidae family include Triceratops, Pachyrhinosaurus, Centrosaurus, and Styracosaurus.

Which characteristics define Ceratopsidae?

The most spectacular trait of the Ceratopsians was the large shelf extending beyond the skull into the frills we love today. When we discuss the two main sub-families later, you’ll see that the chief differences are in this characteristic. Of course, they also go hand-in-hand with lengthy nasal horns, much like the modern rhinoceros.

Two other features of the Ceratopsidae family are the beaks and the back jaw’s rows of teeth. They could break even the toughest foliage, while the shearing teeth were used for chomping. With the advanced dentition, they could consume plant material that was high in fiber.

There’s a debate among scientists as to whether Ceratopsians were social dinosaurs. Many believe that they lived in herds for protection and company. Others believe the herding was only seasonal, and that they would go on their own way during some parts of the year. Bonebed fossils lead to the idea that these dinos may have migrated together at one point.

Ceratopsidae Family

The Sub-Families of the Ceratopsidae Family

You’ll notice we have a separate section on Ancient Beasts that deals with dinosaur genera. We’ll briefly mention the Ceratopsian genera in a moment. For now, we want to touch on the sub-families they belong to and what sets them apart from each other. 

Centrosaurinae

The Centrosaurs had long rectangular frills with ornamental spikes up the ridges. There were prominent nasal bosses or horns, while you may have found short horns just above the temporal bones. Even the snout has a different shape to those of other Ceratopsians. 

Many popular Centrosaurine dinosaurs you may recognize are Pachyrhinosaurus, Avaceratops, Styracosaurus, and Sinoceratops. Two sub-groups in this section of the Ceratopsidae family are Nasutoceratopsini and Eucentrosaura, but you’ll find many genera and species that don’t fall within either of them. 

Chasmosaurinae

The Chasmosaurs had triangular frills with no spinal ornamentation, while they had prominent brows with short horns. The frills also had small hornlets along some of the edges. The sub-family is richer in species than the Centrosaurs and may have had a larger population than most other dinosaurs.

Popular Chasmosaurine names you’ll probably know are Triceratops, Titanoceratops, Chasmosaurus, and Pentaceratops. The only sub-group is Triceratopsini tribe, which features most of the Triceratopsian Chasmosaurs. These featured genera such as Eotriceratops, Torosaurus, and a few others. 

Ceratopsidae Family

Genera within Ceratopsidae

There are many Ceratopsian genera within the family, some of which we haven’t mentioned yet. We don’t want to go into too much detail here, as we want to cover each one separately on our site. Please note that scientists have some doubts about the listed genera.

For now, here’s a quick summary of the Ceratopsidae genera:

  • Ceratops
  • Dysganus
  • Polyonax
  • Centrosaurinae
    • Albertaceratops
    • Brachyceratops
    • Diabloceratops
    • Machairoceratops
    • Medusaceratops
    • Menefeeceratops
    • Sinoceratops
    • Wendiceratops
    • Xenoceratops
    • Nasutoceratopsini
      • Avaceratops
      • Crittendenceratops
      • Nasutoceratops
      • Yehuecauhceratops
    • Centrosaurini
      • Centrosaurus
      • Coronosaurus
      • Rubeosaurus
      • Spinops
      • Styracosaurus
    • Pachyrhinosaurini
      • Einiosaurus
      • Stellasaurus
      • Achelousaurus
      • Pachyrhinosaurus
  • Chasmosaurinae
    • Agujaceratops
    • Anchiceratops
    • Arrhinoceratops
    • Bravoceratops
    • Chasmosaurus
    • Coahuilaceratops
    • Judiceratops
    • Kosmoceratops
    • Mercuriceratops
    • Navajoceratops
    • Pentaceratops
    • Sierraceratops
    • Spiclypeus
    • Terminocavus
    • Titanoceratops
    • Utahceratops
    • Vagaceratops
    • Triceratopsini
      • Agathaumas
      • Eotriceratops
      • Nedoceratops
      • Ojoceratops
      • Regaliceratops
      • Torosaurus
      • Triceratops

Ceratopsidae Family

What are Some Dinosaur Examples of the Ceratopsidae Family?

We’ve already mentioned some of the more popular Ceratopsian dinosaurs. Many of these names were made famous by movies and video games, especially from the Jurassic Park and Jurassic World brands. Here’s a quick selection of the top examples of the Ceratopsidae family, but we’ll have more detailed articles on them to come.

Triceratops

You knew we’d start with this one. The Triceratops Chasmosaurines lived in the Late Cretaceous period during the late Maastrichtian age. The name stands for “three-horned face”, and anyone that’s seen images of this genus will know why. If you haven’t, it’s for the singular horn on the snout and the two horns above the brow.

For many years, scientists believed that the Triceratops’ frill and horns were purely for defensive reasons. Latest studies on dinosaur mating rituals suggest that another purpose was to attract mates or clash with rival males. It’s certainly one of the most popular dinos in the entertainment industry.

Ceratopsidae Family

Chasmosaurus

Another famous Chasmosaur is the genus that lends the sub-family its name. Chasmosaurus means “opening lizard”, which refers to the massive fenestrae (openings) in the frill. As an interesting fact, scientists had originally named it Protosaurus until they discovered they had already given that name to a different genus.

All fossil specimens we have today originated from Canada in the Dinosaur Park Formation in Alberta. There are three distinct species within the Chasmosaurus genus. I originally encountered this dinosaur in the virtual environment when playing Jurassic World Evolution. It desperately needs to arrive in ARK Survival Evolved so I can tame it. 

Ceratopsidae Family

Pentaceratops

If Triceratops means “three-horned face”, it should come as no surprise that Pentaceratops means “five-horned face.”The first type species to be named was P. sternbergii. The formation of the five horns are one on the nose, two on the brow, and two on the jugal bones.

While other discoveries suggested other species in the genus, further study established that it was the same. The plants it enjoyed eating during the Late Cretaceous included cycads, ferns, and low-growing conifers. Its massive teeth and beak were strong enough to break off the needles without too much of a struggle.

Ceratopsidae Family

Pachyrhinosaurus

Now that we’ve looked at three Chasmosaurs, let’s look at some Centrosaurs. I’ll start with my favorite, the Pachyrhinosaurus. The name means “thick-nosed lizard”, given due to the large bosses on the head. The nose had the most prominent one, but there were two smaller ones above the eyes.

There are three known species, and our top selection is P. Canadensis which was the first one found. For the most part, the three species are differentiated by the ornaments on the nasal boss. The Pachyrhinosaurus also had two massive horns that pointed backwards and down on the frill. However, this horn display also varied among the species.

Ceratopsidae Family

Styracosaurus

The name Styracosaurus means “spiked lizard”. The main characteristic that makes it popular is that it had four to six long spikes on the frill, making it a dangerous enemy during the Late Cretaceous. With the way its dental batteries were aligned, it could easily slice up plant matter within a matter of seconds. Scientists believe it lived in herds due to fossils found in a bonebed.

This Centrosaur had a long nose with a big nostril, and there was a lengthy horn on the nose. The frill was usually crowned with four spikes on either side, putting on an almighty display. In some cases, specimens had a third row of spikes on the frill. 

Ceratopsidae Family

Sinoceratops

In an interesting twist of dino-naming, Sinoceratops stands for “Chinese horned face.” The main reason is that three skulls have been found in China. Not only was it the largest known Centrosaur of its time, but it’s also one of the only Ceratopsians found outside North America. 

The Sinoceratops is believed to have lived among Zhuchengtitan, Zhuchengceratops, and Zhuchengtyrannus in the Zhucheng region of China. There was a hooked horn on its nose, while the frills had hornlets that pointed forward. It had a shorter frill than most Ceratopsians, but it wasn’t any less exquisite.

Ceratopsidae Family

How does Ceratopsidae fit into the 7 major dinosaur groups?

Believe it or not, the Ceratopsians are big names in the dinosaur kingdom. When you look at the seven major dino groups, they’re actually listed as the main sect on their own. That’s how significant scientists believed the family and population were, based on discovered fossils.

The seven major dinosaur groups are:

    • Theropods
    • Sauropods
    • Stegosaurs
    • Ankylosaurs
    • Ornithopods
    • Ceratopsians
    • Pachycephalosaurs

       

While Ornithischia is an order on its own, you can see that Ceratopsians stand on their own legs apart from Ornithopods and Pachycephalosaurs, amongst others. Now you know why the entertainment industry makes such a big deal about them.

Top Questions about the Ceratopsians

Whether it’s for academic purposes or idle curiosity, there are plenty of questions about the Ceratopsidae family. We’ve presented as many of them as we could find here below, but we’re sure there are many more. Keep an eye out for when our Ancient Beasts Academy goes live, where you’ll be able to ask our experts any questions.

How many Ceratopsian species are there?

With all the subfamilies, tribes, and genera, there are about 60 known ceratopsian species. It’s a rough estimate, as scientists are still debating who belongs where in some cases. Also, there are debates about how closely Triceratops and Torosaurus are related. The number can also change if we find more fossils.

Did Ceratopsians have teeth?

Yes, and there were two types of teeth based on how primitive or advanced the dental structure was for the Ceratopsian. For the former, the cheek teeth had low angles that were good for sheering. The latter had higher angles that helped with slicing tough vegetation.

What was the first Ceratopsian?

When looking at Ceratopsians, specifically in the Ceratopsidae family, the earliest known dinosaur discovered so far is Triceratops prorsus. It lived in the Late Cretaceous period until the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event. When looking at Ceratopsians as a whole, the earliest dino was Yinlong downsi, which belongs to the Chaoyangsauridae family.

What is the biggest Ceratopsian?

The largest Ceratopsian discovered so far is Eotriceratops xerinsularis. It’s a Chasmosaurus in the Triceratopsini tribe. Eotriceratops stands for “dawn three-horned faced” refers to it being an older relative to the Triceratops. The species name means “of the Dry Island”, indicating the location where the fossils were discovered. The estimated length is 10 m, and the weight 10 tonnes.

What was the smallest Ceratopsian?

When looking at the smallest Ceratopsian, we need to move to the Leptoceratopsidae family. Gryphoceratops is a genus of small Ornithischian dinosaur, with the name meaning “griffin horned face.” It lived during the middle of the Late Cretaceous period.

Did all Ceratopsians have horns?

Most of the Ceratopsidae ceratopsians had horns, complemented with a beak and frill. The frills usually had small or long spines or horns. Their classification in the dinosaur kingdom was generally linked to the shape and design of the frill, skull, and horns or spikes. As these dinos evolved, they developed more advanced horn shapes and lengths.

Why do Ceratopsians have frills?

Scientists initially believed that Ceratopsian frills served a defensive purpose, as the neck was unprotected from carnivore attacks. There have also been discussions that they may have played a role in mating rituals, putting on a stunning display for potential mates. Finally, frills increased the surface area whereby jaw muscles could attach.

Are Ceratopsians sauropods?

No, Ceratopsians are ornithischians. Sauropods were massive herbivore dinosaurs that stretched to large heights with their long necks. They belong to the Saurischia order, which is completely separate from ornithischians. Some popular names you may recognize are Apatosaurus, Brontosaurus, and Brachiosaurus. As you can see, there’s no relation to the likes of Triceratops and Torosaurus.

Which group of dinosaurs are most closely related to the Ceratopsians?

Just above the Ceratopsia clade is the Marginocephalia group. Ceratopsians are closely related to Pachycephalosaurs, which belong in the same group under the Pachycephalosauria clade. They are so closely related because they share a bony outgrowth around the skull, the common trait of Marginocephalians.

How do Ceratopsians differ from other Marginocephalians?

The main characteristics that separate the Ceratopsians from other Marginocephalians, such as the Pachycephalosaurians, are the horned face, beak, jugal horn, and the shelf that extends past the skull into a frill. The Pachycephalosaurus had small horns, but there was no frill or beak-like structure.

Ceratopsidae Family

Final Thoughts on the Ceratopsidae Family

It’s undeniable that the Ceratopsidae family has plenty of dinosaurs that people love and adore. Triceratops might be the most popular, but there are many more with outstanding features. My favorite is the Pachyrhinosaurus, mainly because of how beautiful it is across all features, including the frill and spine horns. 

Do you have a favorite Ceratopsian? Even if it’s Triceratops, we’d love to hear which one you adore and why. Please share it with us in the comments and engage with us in discussion around these amazing ancient beasts.

Shaun M Jooste

Shaun M Jooste

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